Print

Skills >> Browse Articles >> Employment Law

Skills >> Browse Articles >> Diversity and Inclusion

+2

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Laws

March 06, 2008

The Federal laws prohibiting job discrimination are:

a. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII), which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin;

b. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA), which protects men and women who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination;

c. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), which protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older;

d. Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), which prohibit employment discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in the private sector, and in state and local governments;

e. Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibit discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities who work in the federal government; and

f. The Civil Rights Act of 1991, which, among other things, provides monetary damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces all of these laws. EEOC also provides oversight and coordination of all federal equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies. Who is Covered?

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) cover all private employers, state and local governments, and education institutions that employ 15 or more individuals. These laws also cover private and public employment agencies, labor organizations, and joint labor management committees controlling apprenticeship and training.

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) covers all private employers with 20 or more employees, state and local governments (including school districts), employment agencies and labor organizations.

The Equal Pay Act (EPA) covers all employers who are covered by the Federal Wage and Hour Law (the Fair Labor Standards Act). Virtually all employers are subject to the provisions of this Act.

Multinational Employers

U.S.-based companies that employ U.S. citizens outside the United States or its territories, and multinational employers that operate in the United States or its territories, are covered under EEO laws, with certain exceptions.

Federal Government

Title VII, the ADEA, and the EPA also cover the federal government. In addition, the federal government is covered by Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, which incorporate the requirements of the ADA. However, different procedures are used for processing complaints of federal discrimination. For more information on how to file a complaint of federal discrimination, contact the EEO office of the federal agency where the alleged discrimination occurred.

The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (not enforced by EEOC) covers most federal agency employees except employees of a government corporation, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and as determined by the President, any executive agency or unit thereof, the principal function of which is the conduct of foreign intelligence or counterintelligence activities, or the General Accounting Office.

Administration:

EEOC’s representatives are available to assist you between 8:30 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. Eastern Time. An automated system with answers to frequently asked questions is available on a 24-hour basis. You can reach EEOC:

By phone:
1-800-669-4000

If you have a TTY device for hearing impaired:
TTY number is 1-800-669-6820

By Email:
Please include your zip code and/or city and state so that your email will be sent to the appropriate office.
info@eeoc.gov

By mail or fax:
EEOC Headquarters is located at:

U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 1801 L Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20507 Phone: (202) 663-4900 TTY: (202) 663-4494

Official Website: http://www.eeoc.gov/


Poll: How do you feel about crying at work?

Poll: How do you feel about crying at work?